The complex defense relationship between Japan and South Korea, with the United States as intermediary k, illustrates this logic. Footnote 100 A Japanese military analyst said, “Japan and South Korea currently cooperate indirectly through the United States. If the two nations cooperate directly, it would reduce the burden on the United States. Footnote 101 For example, a direct Japanese-Korean DCA would shed light on Japan`s signal, complement South Korea`s vast human intelligence, and ultimately improve the ability of all three governments to deal with the North Korean nuclear threat. Analysts and U.S. defense officials agree that all parties would benefit from the “completion of the triangle.” Footnote 102 However, an agreement remains elusive, almost exclusively due to persistent mistrust. As a result, the United States has acted as an “honest broker” and has taken numerous confidence-building measures, including side talks at multilateral events, the annual trilateral defense speech, and small “Tabletop” exercises, as well as interim extensions to interoperability, logistics, and procurement. Footnote 104 The success of these measures depends on the Mediator`s ability to cred cred credely inform each party of the reliability of the others. Ukrainian President Volodymyr Selenskyj and Turkey`s Recep Tayyip Erdogan oversaw the signing of a goodwill agreement regarding the defense industry and a “military framework agreement,” officials said, although details of the deals were not immediately known. A controversial negotiation between Singapore and Indonesia in 2007 provides a telling example. On 26 June 2015, the Agreement on Cooperation between the United States and Brazil entered into force on 6 June 2015. This agreement, the first formal defense agreement between Brazil and the United States in more than thirty years, is ambitious and encourages cooperation in “defense-related issues, including in the areas of research and development, logistical support, technological security, and the acquisition of defense products and services.” as well as “exchange of information”, “combined military training and training”, “joint military exercises”, between equivalent defence institutions and “exchanges of trainers and training personnel”.
Footnote 1 Since the end of the Cold War, the United States has signed similar bilateral defence cooperation agreements (CAAs) with dozens of partners. And the United States is not the only country to be active in CADs. In 2015 or so, nearly a hundred CACs were signed between countries as diverse as Indonesia and Turkey, South Africa and Liberia, as well as Argentina and Russia. Combined with the theory of cooperation, these historical relationships translate into a basket of simple empirical expectations.. . .