65 Department of Health and Human Services, “Trump Administration Secures New Supplies of Remdesivir for the United States” (June 29, 2020) (last release is September 15, 2020). 52 See Commission, “Signing festivities for a common market agreement” (whose appeal date was given on 1 July 2020). 25 It should be noted that the Public Sector Directive (Article 39) expressly provides that the contracting powers of different Member States cooperate in the procurement of public contracts. In cases where contracting is centralised through a national contracting entity, procurement activities are governed by the national rules of the Member State in which the purchasing centre is established. Some Member States have relied on this directive for joint purchases of medicines and medical devices. One of the most notable examples of cross-border cooperation is the acquisition of a Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine implemented by Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania under the Baltic Partnership Agreement. Since 2012, other cooperative activities have been carried out in the field of innovative medicines and medical devices, including innovative medicines and medical devices; The BeNeLuxA agreement between Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Austria; The Nordic Medicines Forum between Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden; the southern European initiative between Greece, Bulgaria, Spain, Cyprus, Malta, Italy and Portugal; and the initiative of the central and eastern and south-eastern European countries between Romania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Latvia, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, the Republic of Moldova and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. 28 It has been argued that the application of multilateral and bilateral trade agreements removing customs barriers has given companies the opportunity to develop confidential price agreements and AMEs. See Health Austria Research and Planning GmbH, “Study on strengthening transnational coordination in the field of drug pricing” (European Commission, DG Health and Food Safety, 2015) (last time on 15 July 2020). See also WHO Regional Office for Europe, see 27, 10.
In 2014, the European Agreement on Public Procurement was introduced as an innovative instrument for organising the purchase of vaccines and medicines to prepare for pandemics.