Lands Claims Agreement

In 2003, the Igo government and the NT government signed the first agreement in the region to combine a land right and an autonomy agreement. The Tlicho Agreement, which came into force in 2005, distinguished between Aboriginal land rights and non-terrestrial rights. When an Aboriginal group currently operates resources in a province or territory other than its municipalities, the range of benefits available to the group outside its province or territory of residence is determined by negotiations with the province or area concerned and consultation with other Aboriginal groups with common territory or overlapping claims. CONSIDERING that the contracting parties agree that it is desirable to negotiate a focal claim agreement on which Inuit obtain rights and benefits defined in exchange for rights, rights, titles and interests based on the assertion of Aboriginal title; In 1980, the federal government appointed the first chief negotiator from outside the public service to ensure greater neutrality and access to ministers. In 1982, the Canadian Constitution was amended to validate Aboriginal rights, including the rights established in the debt accounts. The Office of Native Claims was abolished in 1986 and replaced by several special units of the Department, including one that oversaw the implementation of the conventions. In 1987, 1991 and 1996, new federal policy documents were released and provincial and territorial governments created their own administrative structures for Aboriginal claims and affairs. Formulas have been found to address the impasse over the “secession” of indigenous rights with regard to the government`s need to reach agreements. Specific claims are based on problems related to contract management, Indian law, First Nations resources and land disposal.

While the hearing is the preferred approach of both parties to resolve these claims, an agreement can also be reached by administrative or judicial appeal. Specific claims are usually made by indigenous groups living in the provinces, unlike the territories, and most settlements are made up of compensation and land (sometimes only land). In 1973, the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada (ITC) began studying the use and occupation of Inuit land in the Arctic. Three years later, in 1976, the ITC launched the idea of creating a territory in Nunavut and the Federal Electoral Boundaries Commission, which recommended dividing the Northwest Territories into two ridings: the Western Arctic (now Northwest Territory) and Nunatsiaq (now Nunavut). In 1982, the Nunavut Tunngavik Federation (TFN) negotiated the fomentary claim contract with the federal government.

Fotos: Kathrin Leisch
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